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NCERT Class 10 History chapter 1 notes by Vibha Maam | The Rise of Nationalism in Europe | Precise Notes

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Frederic Sorrieu and his visualisation

class 10 history chapter 1 notes
Painting of Frederic Sorrieu
  • A French artist Frederic Sorrieu prepared a series of four prints in 1848.
  • This print visualises his dream of a world made up of ‘Democratic and Social Republic’.
  • The first print shows the people of Europe and America marching in a long train and offering homage to the Statue of Liberty.
  • On the earth is the shattered remains of the symbols of absolutist institutions.
  • In Sorrieu’s Utopian vision, the people of the world are grouped as distinct nation identified through their flags and national customs.
  • Leading the procession are the USA and Switzerland followed by France and Germany.
  • From the heavens above, Christ, saints and Angels gaze at the scene.
  • The artist symbolises fraternity among the nations of the world.

The French revolution and the idea of nation 

  • The French revolution occurred in 1789 which led to the transfer of sovereignty from monarchy.
  • The Estates General was renamed the National Assembly.
  • New French flag adopted instead of the royal flag .
  • French become the common language of the nation.
  • Napoleon reign – from 1799 to 1815
  • Rise of Napoleon and his reforms known as’ Napoleonic code ‘or ‘civil code of 1804’ 
  • Revolutionaries help other people of Europe to  become a nation.

Features of Napoleonic code

  • Equality before law
  • Right to property 
  • Administrative divisions were simplified
  • Feudal system abolished 
  • Peasants freed from serfdom and manorial dues 
  • Removal of guild restrictions in town
  • Improvement in transport and communication system 
  • Uniform laws and standardization of weight and measures 
  • Adoption of common national currency

The making of nationalism in Europe

  • No nation States before the mid 18th century.
  • Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons (community) and ruled by autocratic monarchies.
  • Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent. They spoke French .
  • Industrialisation began in France in the 19th century and led to the evolutions of working and middle classes.
  • Educated, liberal, middle classes popularized abolition of aristocratic privileges.

Liberal nationalism

In social sphere

  • Freedom for the individual
  • Equality of all before the law

In political sphere

  • Government by consent 
  • End of autocracy 
  • Adoption of constitution 
  • Representative government through parliament 
  • Abolition of property right

In economic sphere

  • Freedom of markets 
  • Removal of state imposed restrictions on movement of goods and capitals 
  • Established Zollverein in 1834 in Prussia 

New conservatism after 1815

  • Britain, Prussia, Russia and Austria (BPRA) collectively defeated Napoleon in 1815 and drew up a settlement.
  • This settlement known as’ treaty of Vienna’
  • The Vienna Congress was hosted by the chancellor Duke Metternich

Objectives of Treaty of Vienna 

  • Main motive undo the changes, restore monarchy
  • Prussia was given new territories on Western border including Saxony.
  • Austria to control Northern Italy
  • Russia to get Poland 
  • No change in German confederation of 39 States

The Revolutionaries 

  • Establishment of secret societies to spread the Nationalism and oppose conservatism.
  • Giuseppe Mazzini joined Carbonari  later founded Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne
  • Germany, France ,Switzerland and Poland inspired by secret societies 
  • Conservatives frightened by his move

Age of revolution 1830 -1848

  • 1830 July revolution or Greek Revolution
  • causes -romanticism, culture ,regional languages, folk song ,art, pottery, emotion, intuition
  • Unemployment, hunger, economic hardship in Europe ,shortage of food, over crowded cities, inflation
  • Low wages ,feudal system  affected peasants (Begari)
  • Peasants and workers revolt in 1845.
  • The English poet lord Byron went to fight in the war and died in 1824
  • The ‘Treaty of Constantinople‘ of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.

The revolution of liberals 1848

  • Demanded for constitution + unification of nation 
  • German professionals, businessmen, artisans decided to vote for’ All German National Assembly’ .
  • Frankfurt parliament organised in church Saint Paul 
  • Constitution drafted
  • Germany became constitutional monarch
  • When offered crown, Friedrich Wilhelm iv, king of Prussia, rejected
  • Social based parliament safety to middle class dominance
  • However conservative forces suppressed liberals but made some changes like serfdom and bonded labour abolished, granted concessions

The making of Germany (18th January 1871)

  • Prussia emerged to unite Germany
  • Otto Von Bismarck became the architect of this process 
  • Three wars for seven years with Austria, Denmark and France completed German unification
  • Prussia King William l became emperor of United Germany 
  • Currency, banking, legal and judicial system was legalized

Unification of Italy(1860)

class 10 history chapter 1 notes
Italy before Unification
  • Italy fragmented between 7 States 
  • Sardinian- piedmont ruled by Italian king 
  • North Italy under Austrian Habsburg was ruled by pope 
  • South ltaly was under Bourbon king of Spain
  • Efforts of Mazzini in 1831 and 1848 had failed
  • Responsibility upon king Victor Emmanuel II to unifying the Italian States 
  • C.M Covour through diplomacy allied France to defeat Austria in 1859 
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi with the help of local peasants drove away Spanish ruler in 1860 
  • In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of United Italy.
Italy after Unification

The Strange case of Britain 1707 (Unification of Britain)

  • No British nation existed before 18th century.
  • Ethnic groups– English, Welsh, Scots inhabitated.
  • Growth of English nations in wealth and power.
  • English parliament seized monarchy in 1688.
  • Act of union 1707 between England and Scotland formed “United Kingdom of Great Britain”.
  • The British helped protestants (majority) against catholic of Ireland.
  • Later catholic revolt 1798 was suppressed.
  • 1801 Ireland was also forcibly into the United Kingdom.

Visualising Nations

  • Nations began to be portrayed as female figure called Allegory.
  • Ideas like Liberty, Justice and Republic too were personified as female figures.
  • Coins and stamps to carried their images.
Allegories of France and Germany
  • Marianne represented France and Germania represented Germany Nation.

Nationalism and Imperialism: Balkan Issues

  • The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871.
  • The Balkan was the region of geographical and ethnic variations.
  • It was inhabited by Salvs and was under control of Ottoman Empire
  • Ideas of nationalism swept over entire Balkan region.
  • One by one different nationalities declared their independence through struggle.
  • It later become one of the causes of first world war.
  • Each state developed jealousy and hoped to expand at the cost of others.
  • Countries like Russia, Germany, England, Austria-Hungary extended their control over Balkan area.

    Note:

    Image source– Social Science India and the Contemporary World – 2 {History class 10th}

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Shristi Saini
Shristi Saini
1 year ago

Thankuu mam for notes …these notes makes history easy to understand as well as interesting!

Harleen kaur
Harleen kaur
1 year ago

Thankyou mam

Samta
1 year ago

Thanku Mam For these notes. I appreciate your efforts to extend these notes by sharing it with us.

Samta
1 year ago

I appreciate your efforts by sharing these notes it with us.Thanku Mam

Sachleen
1 year ago

Thank you so much mam for this notes 🙏

Isha saini
Isha saini
1 year ago

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Aswan
Aswan
1 year ago

Thank you mam

Sheetal Parmar
Sheetal Parmar
1 year ago

Thanks mam

Apoorva
1 year ago

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Vidhi Asanwal
1 year ago

Thank you mam . For providing us such an easy and effective notes.

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deiamarquis
1 year ago

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Johaib Ansari
1 year ago

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Tanvi Gupta
Tanvi Gupta
1 year ago

Thank u mam 4 these fabulous 😍😍notes. They r easy 2 understand and the entire chapter is covered so easily😄😄. I appreciate ur efforts … Thanx a lot….😇😇

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Nishu.......
1 year ago

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Nishu.......
1 year ago

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Nishu.......
1 year ago

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Shashank
Shashank
1 year ago

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caryl
1 year ago

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1 year ago

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1 year ago

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1 year ago

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1 year ago

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1 year ago

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1 year ago

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Lovely
1 year ago

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Ved
1 year ago

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Prafulla Benarji
1 year ago

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Gitika
1 year ago

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Kamolika chatterji
1 year ago

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Aparna Das
Aparna Das
1 year ago

thankyou maam for the notes, awaiting for next chapter notes

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1 year ago

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Rekha
1 year ago

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mohit
1 year ago

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Shashi
1 year ago

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Vidhi
1 year ago

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Vipin
1 year ago

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kavita
kavita
1 year ago

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Pallavi
Pallavi
1 year ago

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Aakash
Aakash
1 year ago

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1 year ago

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1 year ago

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1 year ago

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