Agriculture notes by Vibha Maam
Art of growing crops into the soil.
Type of farming
Subsistence farming:- In this type of farming, farmers grow crops for self- consumption. These are two types of subsistence farming.
i) Primitive subsistence farming:- it is also known as ‘slash and burn’ agriculture. Farmers use primitive tools like hoe, dao and digging sticks. land productivity is low.
ii) Intensive subsistence farming :– This type of farming is practised in areas of high density of population ,where pressure of population is high on agricultural land. Farmers take maximum output from the limited land. They use high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation for obtaining higher production.
Commercial farming:-this is the capital intensive farming. Farmers use high doses of modern inputs e.g. HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides.
i) Mixed farming:- In this type of farming, farmers involved in growing crops as well as raising livestock. This type of farming is practised in India, Malaysia, Indonesia, China, Canada, Russia etc.
ii) Plantation farming:– In this type of farming a single crop is grown on a large area. The production is mainly for market and all the produce is used as raw material in respective industries. Tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana etc. are important plantation crops.
These are three seasons for growing crops like Rabi, Kharif and Zaid
Sowing- Oct- Dec (winter crops)
Harvesting- Feb- April/ May
Crops – wheat, barley, peas, gram
Sowing- May-Jul (summer crops)
Harvesting- Sep-Oct/ Nov
Crops – rice, maize, jowar, bajra, sugarcane, jute
Sowing – Apr-Jun
Harvesting – short duration crops
Crops – vegetables, watermelon, cucumber etc.
These are three types of crops -like food crops, non- food crops , horticulture crops
Food crops :- Grains like rice ,wheat, millet, maize and pulses
Plantation crops :- Sugarcane, tea, coffee, oilseeds
Non- food crops :- Cotton, jute, natural silk, hemp
Horticulture crops:- Fruits and vegetables.
Various initiatives taken by the government to ensure the increase in agricultural production.
The Green Revolution based on the use of technology and the White Revolution were some of the strategies initiated to improve a lot of Indian agriculture.
MSP, crop insurance, subsidy on agricultural inputs, Garmin Banks, Kisan credit card (KCC), personal accident insurance scheme (PAIS) are some of the reforms brought by the government.
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