Checkout handpicked notes of NCERT class 11th History Chapter 11 Topic Story of Korea from Paths of Modernization chapter part 3 notes by Vibha Madam, and share it with your friends and classmates.
Story of Korea Notes
Beginning of Modernisation
Korea was ruled by Joseon dynasty (1392-1910) during the late 19th century, Korea faced internal political and social problems and foreign pressure from China, Japan and the west.
In 1910, Japan annexed Korea as its colony. Korean people disliked the Japanese. Koreans demanded independence and set up their provisional government. Koreans demonstrated against colonial rule and sent their delegations in the international conferences of Yalta, Cairo and Potsdam.
August 1945, after the defeat in the second world war, the Japanese colonial rule ended. The Korean Peninsula was temporarily divided along the 38th parallel, into two nations. The North nation was managed by the Soviet and the South nation was managed by the UN. However,this division became permanent and both had a separate government in 1948.
A Post-War Nation
In June 1950, South Korea received support from the US- led United Nations and North Korea got support from communist China. it created a cold war era.
In July 1953, the war ended in an ‘Armistice agreement’. The Korean war had caused not only massive losses of life and property but also delay in economic development and democratisation. prices suddenly rose, new currency issued during the war. As a result, South Korea was forced to rely on the economic assistance being provided by the USA.
Though South Korea’s first president Syngman Rhee had been elected in 1948 through democratic process. he extended his administration twice through illegal constitutional amendments.
In April 1960, Korean citizens protested against this election. This agitation was known as the April Revolution and Rhee was forced to resign.
With this revolution, the spirit of the people erupted in the form of demonstrations and demands. after resignation, the Democratic Party administration took power.
Reformist political powers emerged and the students’ movement grew into a unification movement. In May 1961, the Democratic Party government was overthrown by General Park Chung-Hee and other military authorities.
Rapid Industrialization under Strong Leadership
- In October 1963, Park Chung Hee (military coup leader) was elected as the president. The park government adopted a state-led, export oriented policy to achieve economic growth. The government supported labour intensive light industrial products such as textile and garments.
- During the late 1960s and 1970s, the focus shifted from light industry to heavy and chemical industry.
- In 1970, the new village Saemaul Movement was introduced to encourage the ruler’s people and modernized the agriculture sector.
- Today, Korea is sharing knowledge with developing countries.
- Korea achieved economic growth due to a combination of strong leaders, aggressive industrialists, well-trained bureaucrats and a capable labours force.
The high level of education also contributed to the economic growth of Korea.
Foreign investment and Korea’s high domestic saving rate helped in economic development.
Economic growth was the foundation of the park administration’s long term power. Park revised the constitution and was re-elected in 1971 third time.
- In Oct 1972, Park declared and implemented the Yusin constitution,which made permanent presidency possible.
- Under the Yusin constitution, the president had complete authority over legislation, jurisdiction and administration and also had a constitutional right to repeal any law as an ’emergency measure’.
- Existence of the Yusin constitution, democracy was temporarily suspended.
- In 1979, the second oil crisis acted as a hindrance to economic policy.
Moreover students, scholars and the opposition continually demonstrated against the Yusin Constitution. In 1979, Park Chung-Hee was assassinated and his administration came to an end.
Continued Economic Growth and calls for Democratisation
- In December 1979, after the death of Park Chung-Hee, Chun Doo-Hwan (another military coup) was staged.
- In May 1980, various protests were held by students and citizens demanding democracy.
- The Democracy Movement was suppressed by implementing martial law across the country. In the city of Gwangju, students and citizens did not back down and demanded that martial law be ended. This is known as the Gwangju Democratisation Movement. However, Chun became the president through an indirect election under the Yusin constitution.
- The Chun administration was able to raise economic growth from 1.7% to 13.2% by 1983.
- Economic development has led to urbanization, improvement in education and media advancement.
Due to political awareness, they demanded direct election of the president.
- In May 1987, a university student was death by torture making citizens begin participate in a large-scale struggle for democratisation.
- The Chun administration was forced to make a revision to the constitution, allowing direct elections.
Korean Democracy and the IMF Crisis
- As per the new constitution, the first direct election was held in December 1987.
- A military leader of Chun’s administration Roh-Tae-woo was elected. In 1990, long-time opposition leader Kim Young-Sam compromised with Roh’s party to create a large ruling party.
- In December 1992, Kim (a civilian) was elected the president after decades of military rule.
With governmental support, Korean conglomerates (companies) invested in capital-intensive heavy and chemical industries as well as electronic industries.
Meanwhile, under increasing new liberalist pressure to open its market, the Kim administration joined the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 1996 to strengthen Korea’s international competitiveness.
But increasing trade deficits, poor management of financial institutions Korea was met a foreign currency crisis in 1997.
The crisis was dealt with through emergency financial support provided by the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
Korean citizens actively contributed towards foreign loan repayment through the Gold Collection Movement.
- In December 1997, long time opposition party Kim-Dae-Jung was elected as the president.
- In 2008, Lee Myung-Bak of conservative party was elected as the President.
- In 2012, Conservative Park-Geun-Hye, (daughter of Park Chung-Hee) elected as the first female President.
- In March 2017, she was accused of impeachment and had been removed from office.
- In May 2017,Moon-Jae-In was elected the president.
- The candlelight protests of 2016 for the resignation of the president show maturity of the Korean democracy and citizens elevated political awareness to encourage republicanism in the country.
Two roads of Modernization
Industrial societies far from becoming like each other have found their own path to becoming modern.
Japan was successful in retaining its independence and using traditional skills and practices in new ways.
Japan’s program of modernisation was carried out in an environment dominated by western imperial power. while it imitated them it also attempted to find its own solutions. For instance, the Meiji school system, modelled on European and American practices, introduced new subjects but the curriculum’s main objective was to make loyal citizens.
A course on morals that stressed loyalty to the emperor was compulsory.
- The Chinese path to modernisation was very different. in the 19th and 20th century, rejection of tradition and search for ways to build nation unity and strength.
- The CCP and its supporters fought to put an end to tradition which was seen as keeping the country undeveloped and masses in poverty.
- The CCP has now carried out market reforms and has been successful in making China economically powerful but its political system continues to be tightly controlled.
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