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NCERT Class 9th Geography chapter 4 Climate Notes by Vibha Maam CBSE | English

Climate Notes, Climate Notes by vibha maam, notes by vibha maam, vibha madam, climate, geo notes, geo chapter 4 notes, geography chapter 4, blogscart notes
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Checkout handpicked notes of NCERT class 9th Geography Chapter 4 Climate notes by Vibha Madam, and don’t forget to share your valuable comments in the comment below to motivate our author.

Climate Notes by Vibha Maam

‘Mousim’ is derived from the Arabic word. It means monsoon. This type of climate is found mainly in the south and south-east Asia.

Weather refers to short-run atmospheric conditions of a particular place. Its dominant elements are temperature ,humidity etc.

Climate is the aggregate weather condition of a large area over a long period of time.

Climatic Controls


The latitude affects the temperature of the place.

the temperature decreases as the distance increases from the equator.

the amount of rainfall also decreases.


As height increases, the density of  air decreases.

Pressure and wind

It influences the temperature and rainfall pattern.

Distance from the sea

Land heats up and also cools down faster than water.

places near the sea are cool in summer and warm in winter.

The interiors of  the continent are hot in summer and cold in winter.

Ocean currents

Ocean currents transfer heat from lower latitudes to the higher latitudes.

Direction of mountain ranges

Mountains act as barriers to the movement of wind and affect both temperature and rainfall.

Factors affecting the climate of India


India lies between 8°N and 37°N  latitude. The tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of India, while the southern part lies in the tropical zone and the northern part falls in the subtropical zone. so the temperature remains high during summer and fall in winter.

Himalayan mountains

The Himalayas protect India from the cold wind of the north and obstruct the South westerly monsoon.

Pressure and surface winds

Due to low temperature, there is a high pressure area in the North of the Himalayas. cold dry winds blow from high pressure to low pressure.

       In summer due to high temperature, a low- pressure area develops over North-Western India.

Upper air circulation( jet stream)

There are narrow belts of high altitude westerly wind in the troposphere. These Jet streams are located approx. over 27°- 30°N latitude, therefore, they are known as sub-tropical westerly jet streams. 

Altitude – about 8 to 15 km 

Speed   – in summer about 110 km/h

             –  in winter about 184 km/h

Western cyclonic disturbances

In winter, it is brought in by the westerly flow from the Mediterranean region. They usually influence  the weather of the north and the north western region of India.

Tropical cyclones

They occur during the monsoon as well as in Oct -Nov and are part of the Easterly affect on the coastal region of the country.

Varied relief

The Western and Eastern Ghats force the moisture Laden south-west monsoon from the Arabian sea to ascend the slope. 

Coriolis Force

An apparent force caused by the earth’s rotation. this force is responsible for deflecting winds toward the right in the Northern hemisphere and toward the left in the Southern hemisphere. This is also known as Ferrel’s law.

The inter tropical convergence zone( ITCZ)

ITCZ is a broad trough of low pressure in equatorial latitudes.

Southern Oscillation (SO)

Normally when the tropical Eastern South Pacific Ocean experiences high pressure, the tropical Eastern Indian ocean experiences low pressure. the reversal (periodic) change in pressure condition over the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean known as the southern oscillation or SO.

Prediction station of monsoon 

Tahiti  – Pacific Ocean (18°S /149°W)

Darwin – Indian Ocean (12°30S/ 131°E)

EI Nino is a periodic warm ocean current that flows past the peruvian coast, in place of the cold Perivan current, every two to five years. The changes in pressure condition are connected to the El Nino. Hence, the phenomenon is referred to as ENSO (EI Nino southern oscillation).

Cycle of Seasons

 The cold weather season or the winter season 

  • Clear sky, low temperature and humidity 
  • Temperature below 21°C 
  • The coldest month is January, temperature is 10°to 15°C.
  • Northeast Trade winds prevail over the country.
  • They blow from land to the sea over most parts of the country and do not cause much rainfall.
  • Western disturbances cause light rainfall and highly beneficial to the  Rabi crops 
  • Winds blow from land to the sea while crossing the Bay of Bengal cause winter rainfall in Tamilnadu, South Andhra Pradesh, south-east Karnataka, and Kerala.


The hot weather season

  • Summer season- March to May
  • Rising temperature and falling air pressure
  • Average temperature ranges from 42°C to 43°C
  • North Western part of the country-  temperature 48°C
  • The North-East Trade Winds blow from the South-East to the north-west.

The Southwest monsoon season or rainy season 

  • most parts of the country receive rainfall from June to September 
  • but  some parts like the Tamilnadu coast get most of its rain during October and November.
  • North-Western parts have temperature upto 40°C 
  • By early June, the low pressure conditions are powerful enough to attract the South-East Trade Winds.
  • 3/4th of India’s annual rainfall is received during this season.
  • The Arabian sea branch monsoon strikes the Western coast of India.
  • The Bay of Bengal branch causes widespread rain in North- Eastern India.

Monsoon Burst

When normal rainfall increases suddenly and continuously for several days known as monsoon burst.

The season of retreating monsoon

  • Clear skies and rise in temperature 
  • Oppressive weather in October
  • Southwest monsoon gives place to the North East monsoon
  • Only Kerala, Tamilnadu, and adjoining Andhra Pradesh  receive rainfall.

Monsoon acts as a unifying bond 

  • Himalayas enable north India to have uniformly higher temperatures.
  • The seasonal alteration of the wind systems and the associated weather conditions provide a rhythmic cycle of seasons.
  • The landscape, its animals and plants, and the lives of the people revolve around this phenomenon.
  • The monsoon winds bind the whole country by providing water to set the agricultural activities in motion.
  • The river valleys which carry this water also unite as a single river valley unit.


Temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind, humidity, precipitation, altitude, and distance from the sea.

The reversal of the change in pressure condition in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean.

 It is a name given to the periodic development of a warm ocean current along the coast of Peru as a temporary replacement of cold peruvian current.

The changes in pressure conditions in southern oceans are connected to the El Nino, this phenomenon is referred to as ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation).

The inter tropical convergence zone (ITCZ).It is a broad trough of low pressure in equatorial latitudes; It lies more or less parallel  about 5°N and 5°S to the equator.

When normal rainfall increases suddenly and continuously for several days. It is known as a break or ‘burst of monsoon‘.

In Rajasthan the temperature goes upto 50° C and less rainfall than 10 cm. to save from the extreme temperature wall, thick and flat roofs resist water and accumulate water on the roof.

There is heavy rainfall every time, so water easily flows from the roof, that’s why the house has a sloped roof.

Because the state receives plentiful rainfall, to avoid flooding of houses, the houses are made on stilts.

Because the prevailing winds in the tropic are tropical easterly winds. it becomes dry by reaching the Western margin of the continent and so they bring no rainfall.

An apparent force caused by the earth’s rotation. This force deflected wind towards the right in the Northern hemisphere and towards left in the Southern hemisphere. This is also known as Ferrell’s Law.’

These are a narrow belt of high-speed air current flowing in the upper layer of the atmosphere. The speed of this air current can be varied from season to season.

It originates over the Mediterranean sea and causes rainfall in the North West.

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2 years ago

we are blessed under your guidance maam your notes are really helpful

2 years ago

thankyou maam your efforts are really appreciable

2 years ago

awesome maam

kritika Gupta
2 years ago

It is really nice of you mam that you are providing us with these helpfull notes

Veerpal Kaur
Veerpal Kaur
2 years ago

Thank you so much mam for providing us very helpful notes

2 years ago

thanks for your blessings mam

2 years ago

i feel grateful that i look into this note it just to simple and in points notes

2 years ago

i found notes here are so amazingly written here other than byjus or any other site
even i understand the chapter too with just these notes

please introduce more subjects notes also other than sst only

escort kartal
escort kartal
2 years ago

amazed to read it so easy and understand the whole chapter with this notes only

1 year ago

thanks for making point to point wise notes

1 year ago

Thnku ma’am for wonderful notes….. These are too simple to understand and remember…. ☺

9 months ago

Yes, my friend, you have to stay awake all the time so that you don’t get lost in the passing time.

7 months ago

one of the most precise note for this chapter so far… i tried many websites for notes but here its point to point answer as well as easy to understand the whole chapter just by reading this

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