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NCERT Class 9th Geography chapter 5 Natural vegetation and Wildlife Notes by Vibha Maam CBSE | English

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Checkout handpicked notes of NCERT class 9th Geography Chapter 5 Natural vegetation and wildlife notes by Vibha Madam, and share it with your friends and classmates.

Natural vegetation and Wildlife notes by Vibha Maam

(Some terms are important to understand before continuing the chapter. Let define the words)

Flora – Plants of a particular region of period 

Fauna – The species of animals 

Biome – A very large ecosystem on land having distinct types of vegetation and animal life

 

Natural Vegetation

       Natural vegetation refers to a plant community which has grown naturally without human help and disturbance for a long time.

Factors affecting the natural vegetation land relief, type of  soil, temperature, humidity, latitude, altitude, precipitation.

Ecosystem

       The interdependence of species of plants and animals in a given area forms a single ecosystem. Human beings are also an integral part of the ecosystem.

Land affects the natural vegetation

  • The nature of land influence the type of vegetation
  • The fertile land is generally devoted to agriculture
  • Grasslands and Woodlands are developed in undulating and rough terrain
  • Mangroves are found in muddy and silty areas 
  • Acacia, cacti and thorny plants found in desert soil 

 

Type of Forests

1) Tropical evergreen forest or equatorial forests

  • These forests are found in the area having more than 200cm of rainfall with the short dry season
  • Trees have broad leaves and hardwood 
  • They do not shed their leaves 
  • Forests are thick and luxuriant with plenty of trees 
  • Trees – Mahogany, ebony, Rosewood, rubber, cinchona
  • Wildlife – Crocodile, elephants, one horned  rhinoceros, monkey, lemur, deer, alligator, hippopotamus, scorpions and snails
  • Regions – These forests are found in heavy rainfall areas of Western ghats, Lakshadweep, Andaman, Nicobar Islands and Assam and Tamil Nadu coast.

 

2)Tropical Deciduous Forests or Monsoon forest

  • They are not as dense as evergreen forest
  • They shed their leaves during the dry season 
  • On the basis of the availability of water these forests are divided into two categories i.e.,

             Moist & Dry deciduous forests

a) Moist deciduous forests

  • These forests are found in the area of 100 to 200cm of rainfall
  • They shed their leaves during the dry season
  • Trees – Teak, bamboo, shisham, sandalwood and sal, khair, mulberry are the common trees.
  • regions – Northeastern states, Foothills of Himalayas, Orissa, Chattisgarh.

b) Dry deciduous forests

  • These forests are found in areas having rainfall between 100 cm and 70 cm
  • Regions – These are found wetter parts of the plateau, Bihar, UP
  • Trees – Teak, sal, peepal, Neem
  • This region is not rich in wildlife
  • Common animals – Lion, tiger, pig, deer, elephant ,snakes, tortoises.

 

3)The Thorn Forests and Scrubs or Desert Thorn Forests 

  • Rainfall less than 70 cm
  • Plant have long roots and succulent stem, tiny, waxy and leathery leaves,
  • Regions – North Western part of the country, semi-arid areas of Gujarat Haryana, Rajasthan some part of Madhya Pradesh.
  • Plants – Acacia, palm, euphorbias, cacti, Babul, kikar 
  • Common animals – Camel, snake, lizards

 

4) Mountain Forest or Coniferous forest (Taiga Forests)

  • Trees are long about 30m and more
  • Trees are tall and straight
  • Trees leaves are needle like-shaped curve downward branches 
  • Little or less rainfall 
  • Regions – Southern slopes of Himalaya, North- East India
  • Trees – Deodar, spruce, cedar, fir, pine.
  • Evergreen broadleaf trees like oaks and chestnuts predominate.
  • Animals – Panda, deer, yak, snow leopard, squirrels, Shaggy horned wild ibex, bear, red panda, sheep and goat with thick hair 
  • Mosses and lichens are the tundra vegetation (coldest biomes)

 

5) Mangrove Forests or Tidal forests

  • These forests are found in areas of the coast or marshy regions.
  • Regions – the delta of the Ganga ,the Mahanadi ,the Krishna, the Godavari, and the Kaveri,
  • Sundari trees are found in the Ganga -Brahmaputra Delta which provide durable hard Timber
  • Trees – Palm, coconut, agar, also growing in some part of the delta.
  • Wildlife – Royal Bengal tiger is a famous animal in this forest. Turtles, crocodile gharials and snakes are also found in these Forests.

 

Importance of forests and needs for conservation of natural vegetations

  • Forests are renewable resources and play a major role in enhancing the quality of environment
  • Forests control soil erosion and also modify the local climate
  • Forests support a variety of industries providing raw material
  • Forests provide livelihood for many communities
  • It controls wind force and temperature and cause rainfalls
  • It provides soil to human  and shelters to the wildlife
  • Forests also balance the ecological system for plants and animals.
  • For proper ecological balance nature maintains a balance between carbon dioxide and oxygen 
  • The Forests also help in the conservation of soil.

 

Steps Taken by Various Governments

  • Biosphere reserves are being established
  • Periodic census are undertaken of endangered species 
  • In order to preserve wildlife in its natural habitat, national parks and sanctuaries have been set up
  • Hundreds of government as well as non- government agencies are working to conserve the wildlife

IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature

UNESCO The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation

WWF –  World Wide Fund for nature 

  • Education can also play a vital role in conserving wildlife and vegetation.

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priya
priya
10 months ago

thank you so much mam

Om Sagar
1 month ago

thank you so much for this notes

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