Checkout handpicked notes of NCERT Class 9 Economics Lesson 1 notes (The Story of Village Palampur) by Vibha Madam, and don’t forget to share your valuable comments in the comment below to motivate our author.
The four requirements for production:
The most important factor of production is land. It is a fixed factor of production. It cannot be increase in a short period of time.
Some production activities required highly educated workers to perform the necessary tasks (skilled) other activities required workers who can do manual work (unskilled).
Tools machines buildings can be used in production over many years are called fixed capital.
Raw material and money in hand are called working capital.
4) Human Resource:
This is the most important factor of production. Human capital includes competent and trained people who put together land, capital and other factors of production to produce goods. Human capital can be built through investment on education and training.
The way to increase the production on the fixed land
- Multiple cropping – Farmers grow three crops in a year .During the rainy season (kharif ), farmer grow jowar, bajra, rice. Farmers grow potato between October and December as Jayad crop. In the winter season (Rabi), farmers grow wheat, peas, gram, mustard, etc.
- Surplus wheat – Farmers can sell the surplus wheat in the market to provide traders or the government agencies like food corporation of India (FCI).
- Electricity – Electricity has also played an important role in the modernisation of agriculture as farmers start using Threshers, Tubewells and other machines.
- Modern Inputs – The green revolution introduced in the late 1960s. The Indian farmer cultivate wheat and rice by using high yielding variety seeds (HYVs).
Who will provide the labour?
Labour is the next necessary factor for production. Farm labourers come either from landless families or families cultivating small plot of land. Medium and large farmers hire farm labourers to work on the fields, which can be in cash or in kind of crop. Wages vary widely from reason to reason. The minimum wages for a farm labourer set by the government is 300 rupees in 2017 but often they exploited by the money lenders and the rich farmers. They are paid very low wages.
Ques– Why do some workers get lesser salary than the minimum wages?
This is because the workers are more as compared to demand. so there is a tough competition among workers to get employment therefore, they get ready to work on the lower salary.
The capital needed in farming
Most small farmers have to borrow money to arrange for the capital. They borrow from large farmers and traders on the high rate of interest.
The medium and large farmers have their own savings. Thus, they are able to arrange for the capital needed.
It is the scientific way of increasing the production by using HYV seeds and other inputs.
Punjab Haryana and the West Uttar Pradesh were the first to try this method in the farming. By using this method the production of food grains has been increased many times. The Indian farmers become self-sufficient in food grains. Their living standard also have been improved. Agro based industries have a great boost. GDP is also increased.
Disadvantage of the Modern Farming
It is only used by rich farmers because it requires more inputs. Loss of soil fertility due to excess use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Continuous use of groundwater for tube-well irrigation, has reduced the water table below the ground. Overuse of chemical fertilizers also pollute the groundwater, rivers and lakes. Excess use of chemicals, kill the useful bacteria from the soil.
Non farming activities:
Like dairy ,small scale manufacturing, shop keeping, transport, teaching etc.
It is a common activity for many families in village. The Milk is sold in the nearby the villages and towns.
Small scale industries:
They carried out mostly work at home or in the fields with the help of family labour like making papad, pickles, jaggery, candle, ropes, basket weaving, etc.
The traders and shopkeepers buy various goods from wholesale market in the cities and sell them in the villages and in towns.
Transport is a tertiary activity for earning, people drive Jeep, tractor, truck ,bullock cart and other vehicles. They ferry people and goods from one place to another.
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