People as Resource notes by Vibha Madam
I’m writing this notes on behalf of Vibha Ma’am as she is busy with some urgent works.
By the term human resources, we mean the size of population of a country along with its efficiency, educational qualities, productivity, organisational abilities and farsightedness.
- It can be turned into a productive asset by investment in human capital. for example, by spending resources on education and health for all, training of industrial and agricultural workers in the use of modern technology, useful scientific research and so on..
- Investment in human resources can give a high rate of return in the future.
What is health?
Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely that absence of disease or infirmity is termed as health.
What is education?
Education is considered as the third eye of man. The education system prepares the child for future life.it also enhances the national income, cultural richness and increases the efficiency of governance.
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
- It is a significant step towards providing elementary education to all children in age group of 6 to 14 years by 2010.
- Its aim is to achieve the goal of universalisation of elementary education .
- For this provision Navodaya vidyalaya are established in each district.
- The mid-day meal scheme has been implemented to encourage the attendance ratio.
Importance of Human capital
- Human capital is superior than that of other resources.
- Humans can convert resources into valuable one by using their intelligence and technology.
- Land and capital cannot become useful on its own.
- Efficiency and the technology evolved by people have made countries rich or developed. Japan is an example of the developed country. they have not any natural resources and also faces many disasters frequently but they invest in human resource that’s why it is a developed country.
Quality of population
It depends upon the literacy rate, health of a person, indicated by life expectancy and skill formation acquired by the people of the country.
Economic activities:- all activities that give income to the people are called economic activities.
Primary activities, secondary activities and tertiary activities .
The Primary Sector is related to natural activities, like farming, forestry, animal husbandry and mining.
Secondary Sector construction and manufacturing is included in this sector .
The Tertiary Sector is also called the service sector. trade, transport, communication, banking, education, tourism etc. are included in the tertiary activities.
- These activities that add value to the national income are called Economic Activities.
Economic activities have two parts:
Market activities:– It involves remuneration to anyone who performs, i.e. activities performed for pay or profit .
Non-market activity:- It is the production for self-consumption .
Non Economic Activities
These activities which do not give income in return are non-economic activities, for example domestic works.
- In this sector, women with higher education and skill formation are paid at par with the man.
- Training and medicine attract the most.
- Some women have entered administration and other services.
- Most women work in an unorganised sector where job security is not there .
- Employment in this sector is characterized by irregular and low income.
- In this sector there is an absence of basic facilities like maternity leave, child care and other social security systems.
- Unemployment is a situation when people are willing to do work at the going wages, but cannot find jobs .
- The level of joblessness in the economy is often measured as a percentage of the workforce.
- The nature of unemployment differs in rural and urban areas.
- Seasonal and disguised unemployment can be seen in rural areas in agriculture .
Seasonal unemployment happens when people have no job during some months of the year.
Disguised unemployment in case of this, people appeared to be employed. When in any work more people are engaged than required, they are called disguised unemployment .
Educational unemployment mostly prevails in urban areas. Many graduates and postgraduates, even technically qualified people, are jobless while there is a dearth of technical skills required for economic growth.
Major factors responsible for Unemployment
- Rapid growth of population
- Over dependence on agriculture
- Underdevelopment of cottage and small -scale industries
- Under development of industries
- Sow pace of infrastructure growth due to slow growth of Indian economy
Disadvantage of Unemployment
- It leads to wastage of manpower resources
- It is the cause of poverty
- The dependence of the unemployed on the working population increases.
- Quality of life of an individual as well as the society is adversely affected
- It can create the problem of social turmoil.
Provisions of Education and Health
- Economic and social development
- Development of human personalities
- Help in development in Science and technology
- Increases the efficiency of the worker
- Increases the efficiency of governance and national income.
- Education opens new vistas, reduces poverty and boosts economic growth .
- It plays a very important role in strengthening democracy as educated citizens are aware about their rights and duties.
- Good health increases the efficiency of workers
- Good health increases the learning capacity of a person.
- A healthy worker is an asset for the firm as well as for the country.
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